Astrocyte glycogen is a major source of hypothalamic lactate in rats with recurrent hypoglycemia
Lactate is an important metabolic substrate for sustaining brain energy requirements when glucose supplies are limited. Recurring exposure to hypoglycemia (RH) raises lactate levels in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) which contributes to counter-regulatory failure. However, the source of this lactate remains unclear. The present study investigates whether astrocytic glycogen serves as the major source of lactate in the VMH of RH rats. By decreasing the expression of a key lactate transporter in VMH astrocytes of RH rats, we reduced extracellular lactate concentrations, suggesting excess lactate was locally produced from astrocytes. To determine whether astrocytic glycogen serves as the major source of lactate, we chronically delivered either artificial extracellular fluid or 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) to inhibit glycogen turnover in the VMH of RH animals. Inhibiting glycogen turnover in RH animals prevented the rise in VMH lactate and the development of counter-regulatory failure. Lastly, we noted that RH led to an increase in glycogen shunt activity in response to hypoglycemia and elevated glycogen phosphorylase activity in the hours following a bout of hypoglycemia. Our data suggests that dysregulation of astrocytic glycogen metabolism following recurring exposure to hypoglycemia may be responsible, at least in part, for the rise in VMH lactate levels.