MAD2-dependent insulin receptor endocytosis regulates metabolic homeostasis
Insulin activates insulin receptor (IR) signaling and subsequently triggers IR endocytosis to attenuate signaling. Cell division regulators MAD2, BUBR1, and p31comet promote IR endocytosis upon insulin stimulation. Here, we show that genetic ablation of the IR-MAD2 interaction in mice delays IR endocytosis, increases IR levels, and prolongs insulin action at the cell surface. This in turn causes a defect in insulin clearance and increases circulating insulin levels, unexpectedly increasing glucagon levels, which alters glucose metabolism modestly. Disruption of the IR–MAD2 interaction increases serum fatty acid concentrations and hepatic fat accumulation in fasted male mice. Furthermore, disruption of the IR–MAD2 interaction distinctly changes metabolic and transcriptomic profiles in the liver and adipose tissues. Our findings establish the function of cell division regulators in insulin signaling and provide insights into the metabolic functions of IR endocytosis.
· Physiological function of IR trafficking on insulin sensitivity remains unresolved.
· Disruption of the IR-MAD2 interaction delays IR endocytosis and prolongs insulin signaling.
· IR-MAD2 controls insulin clearance and glucose metabolism.
· IR-MAD2 maintains energy homeostasis.