Weight Change During the Postintervention Follow-up of Look AHEAD
Research Design and Methods. These secondary analyses compared post-intervention weight change (year-8 to final visit [median 16 years]) in ILI and DSE in 3999 Look AHEAD participants. Using empirically derived trajectory categories, we compared four subgroups: Weight Gainers (N= 307), Weight Stable (N=1561), Steady Losers (N=1731) and Steep Losers (N=380) on post-intervention mortality, demographic variables and health status at randomization and year-8.
Results. Post-intervention weight change averaged -3.7 ±9.5%, with greater weight loss in DSE than ILI. The steep weight loss trajectory subgroup lost on average 17.7 + 6.6%.; 30% of Steep Losers died during post-intervention follow-up vs 10-18% in other trajectories (p<. 0001). The following variables distinguished Steep Losers from Weight Stable: Baseline - older; longer diabetes duration; higher BMI; greater multimorbidity; Intervention – randomization to control group; less weight loss in years 1-8; Year 8 - higher prevalence of frailty, multimorbidity and depressive symptoms; lower use of weight control strategies.
Conclusion. Steep weight losses post-intervention were associated with increased risk of mortality. Older individuals with longer duration diabetes and multi-morbidity should be monitored for excessive, unintentional weight loss.