American Diabetes Association
CD23-0008_Supplementary_Material.pdf (2.56 MB)

Unmasking Barriers in the Delivery of Preconception Counseling and Contraception Provision for Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

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Version 2 2023-06-30, 11:30
Version 1 2023-06-05, 20:35
posted on 2023-06-30, 11:30 authored by Layla A. Abushamat, Lauren Sayres, Rebecca Jeffers, Chloe Nielsen, Linda A. Barbour, Adnin Zaman


Suboptimal glycemic control among women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes before conception and during the early part of pregnancy is a powerful risk factor for fetal anomalies, macrosomia, and stillbirth. Major congenital anomalies occur in up to 25–30% of infants of women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (1). Hyperglycemia during fetal organogenesis (5–8 weeks after the last menstrual period) is a considerable teratogen, and, consequentially, the risk of fetal anomalies related to preexisting maternal diabetes can be reduced to background risk when glycemic control is at goal.


American Diabetes Association 1-21-CMF-003 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services > National Institutes of Health > National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases F32 DK123878