Trends in Glycemic among Youth with Diabetes: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study included 6,492 participants with type 1 or type 2 diabetes from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Participant visit data were categorized into time periods 2002-2007, 2008-2013 and 2014-2019, diabetes durations of 1-4, 5-9, and 10+ years, and age groups 1-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25+ years. Participants contributed one randomly selected data point to each duration and age group per time period. Multivariable regression models were used to test differences in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over time by diabetes type. Models were adjusted for site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, health insurance status, insulin regimen and diabetes duration, overall and stratified for each duration and age group.
RESULTS: Adjusted mean HbA1c for the 2014-2019 cohort of YYA with type 1 diabetes was 8.8%±0.04%. YYA with type 1 diabetes in the 10-14, 15-19, and 20-24 age groups from the 2014-2019 cohort had worse glycemic control than the 2002-2007 cohort. Race/ethnicity, household income and treatment regimen predicted differences in glycemic control in 2014-2019 type 1 diabetes participants. Adjusted mean HbA1c was 8.6%±0.12% for 2014-2019 YYA with type 2 diabetes. Participants age 25+ with type 2 diabetes had worse glycemic control relative to the 2008-2013 cohort. Only treatment regimen was associated with differences in glycemic control in type 2 diabetes participants.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite advances in diabetes technologies, medications, and dissemination of more aggressive glycemic targets, many current YYA are less likely to achieve desired glycemic control relative to earlier cohorts.