Trends in Glucose Lowering Drug Utilization, Glycemic Control, and Severe Hypoglycemia in Adults with Diabetes in Hong Kong 2002-2016
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RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using population-based data from the Hong Kong Diabetes Surveillance Database, we estimated age- and sex-standardized proportion of GLDs classes, mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and SH rates in 763,809 diabetes patients aged≥20 years between 2002-2016.
RESULTS Between 2002-2016, use declined for sulfonylureas (62.9% to 35.3%) but increased for metformin (48.4% to 61.4%) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) (0.01% in 2007 to 8.3%). The proportion of patients with HbA1c of 6.0-7.0% (42-to-53 mmol/mol) increased from 28.6% to 43.4% while SH rate declined from 4.2 per 100-person-years to 1.3 per 100-person-years. The main improvement in HbA1c occurred between 2007 and 2014, decreasing from mean (SD) 7.6 (1.6)% (59.5 [19.0] mmol/mol) to 7.2 (1.7)% (54.8 [18.9] mmol/mol) (p<0.001). The 20-44 age group had the highest proportion of HbA1c≥9% (75 mmol/mol) and rising proportions not on GLDs (from 2.0% to 7.7%).
CONCLUSIONS In this 15-year survey, the modest but important improvement in HbA1c since 2007 coincided with diabetes service reforms, increase in metformin, decrease in sulfonylurea and modest rise in DPP-4i use. Persistently poor glycemic control and under-utilization of GLDs in the youngest group calls for targeted action.