Treating Gestational Diabetes Reduces Birth Weight but Does Not Affect Infant Adiposity Across the 1st Year of Life
Methods: Anthropometric measurements were performed at 3-months and
12-months of life in 567 infants born to women comprising the following 4
gestational glucose tolerance groups: (i) women with normoglycemia on both glucose
challenge test (GCT) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnancy; (ii)
women with an abnormal GCT but normal OGTT; (iii) those with mild gestational
impaired glucose tolerance; and (iv) women treated for GDM.
Results: Birthweight progressively increased across the 3 untreated groups but was lowest in women treated for GDM (p=0.0004). Similarly, women treated for GDM had the lowest rate of macrosomia (p=0.02). Conversely, however, there were no differences between the 4 groups in weight Z-score, length Z-score, weight-for-length Z-score or BMI Z-score at either 3-months or 12-months (all p=NS). Similarly, there were no differences between the groups in triceps/biceps/subscapular/suprailiac skinfold thickness or sum of skinfolds at either 3-months or 12-months (all p=NS).
Conclusion: Despite reducing birthweight and macrosomia, the treatment of GDM does not have analogous effects on infant adiposity across the 1st year of life.