Time to Peak Glucose and Peak C-Peptide During the Progression to Type 1 Diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Trial and TrialNet Cohorts
Methods: We examined 2-hour OGTTs of participants in the Diabetes Prevention Trial Type 1 (DPT-1) and TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) studies. We included 706 DPT-1 participants (Mean±SD age: 13.84±9.53 years; BMI-Z-Score: 0.33±1.07; 56.1% male) and 3,720 PTP participants (age: 16.01±12.33 Years, BMI-Z-Score 0.66±1.3; 49.7% male). Log-rank testing and Cox regression analyses with adjustments (age, sex, race, BMI Z-Score, HOMA-IR and peak Glucose/C-peptide levels, respectively) were performed.
Results: In each of DPT-1 and PTP, higher 5-year diabetes progression risk was seen in those with time to peak glucose >30 min and time to peak C-peptide >60 min (p<0.001 for all groups), before and after adjustments. In models examining strength of association with diabetes development, associations were greater for time to peak C-peptide versus peak C-peptide value (DPT-1: X2 = 25.76 vs. X2 = 8.62 and PTP: X2 = 149.19 vs. X2 = 79.98; all p<0.001). Changes in the percentage of individuals with delayed glucose and/or C-peptide peaks were noted over time.
Conclusions: In two independent at risk populations, we show that those with delayed OGTT peak times for glucose or C-peptide are at higher risk of diabetes development within 5 years, independent of peak levels. Moreover, time to peak C-peptide appears more predictive than the peak level, suggesting its potential use as a specific biomarker for diabetes progression.