The relationship between time-varying achieved HbA1c and risk of coronary events depends on haptoglobin phenotype among White and Black ACCORD participants
Objective: Intensive glycemic therapy reduced coronary artery disease (CAD) events among White ACCORD study participants with the haptoglobin (Hp)2-2 phenotype, while participants without the Hp2-2 phenotype had no CAD benefit. The association between achieved glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and CAD for each Hp phenotype remains unknown.
Methods: Achieved HbA1c was similar in each phenotype throughout the study. Prospectively collected HbA1c data (categorized as <6.0%, 6.0-6.5%, 6.6-6.9% or ≥8.0% compared to 7.0-7.9%) from the ACCORD study, updated every 4 months over a median of 4.7 years, were analyzed in relation to CAD in the Hp2-2 (n=3322) and non-Hp2-2 (n=5949) phenotypes separately, overall and within White (63%, 37% Hp2-2) and Black (19%, 26% Hp2-2) participants using Cox proportional hazards regression with time-varying covariables.
Results: Compared to HbA1c of 7.0-7.9%, having HbA1c ≥8.0% was associated with CAD risk among White (1.43, 1.03-1.98) and Black (2.86, 1.09-7.51) participants with the Hp2-2 phenotype, but not when all Hp2-2 participants were combined overall (1.30, 0.99-1.70), and not among participants without the Hp2-2 phenotype. HbA1c <7.0% was not associated with a lower risk of CAD for any Hp phenotype.
Conclusions: Achieving HbA1c >8.0% compared to 7.0-7.9% was consistently associated with incident CAD risk among White and Black ACCORD participants with the Hp2-2 phenotype while no association was observed among participants without the Hp2-2 phenotype. We found no evidence that HbA1c concentration <7.0% prevents CAD in either Hp phenotype group.