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The Pathological Evolution of Glucose Response Curves During the Progression to Type 1 Diabetes in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study

posted on 08.09.2020 by Heba M. Ismail, Mario A. Cleves, Ping Xu, Ingrid M. Libman, Dorothy J. Becker, Jennifer B. Marks, Jay S. Skyler, Jerry P. Palmer, Jay M. Sosenko, Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group
Objective: Glucose response curves (GRCs) during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) are predictive of type 1 diabetes. We performed a longitudinal analysis in pancreatic autoantibody positive (Ab+) individuals to assess: 1) characteristic GRC changes during progression to type 1 diabetes, and 2) GRC changes in relation to β-cell function changes and to combined glucose and C-peptide response curve (GCRC) changes. Research Design and Methods: Among Ab+ individuals with serial OGTTs in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study, GRC changes from first to last OGTTs were compared between progressors (n=298) to type 1 diabetes and non-progressors (n=2216). GRC changes from last before diagnosis to diagnostic OGTTs were studied in progressors. Results: GRCs changed more frequently from Biphasic (2 peaks) to Monophasic (1 peak) GRCs between first and last OGTTs in progressors than in non-progressors [75.4% vs. 51.0%; p<0.001]. In contrast, progressors changed less frequently from Monophasic to Biphasic than non-progressors [12.6% vs. 30.6%; p <0.001]. Monotonic (continuous increase) GRCs were present in 47.7% of progressors at diagnosis. The early (30-0 min) C-peptide response decreased in progressors changing from Biphasic to Monophasic between first and last OGTTs (p<0.001) and from Monophasic to Monotonic between last and diagnostic OGTTs (p<0.001). Conversely, the early C-peptide response increased among non-progressors changing from Monophasic to Biphasic (p<0.001). Changes in GRCs were related to changes in GCRCs. Conclusions: Characteristic GRC changes, Biphasic to Monophasic to Monotonic, occur during the progression to type 1 diabetes. These GRC changes correspond to decreasing β-cell function.


“We acknowledge the support of the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group, which identified study participants and provided samples and follow-up data for this study. The Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group is a clinical trials network funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, through cooperative agreements U01 DK061010, U01 DK061034, U01 DK061042, U01 DK061058, U01 DK085465, U01 DK085453, U01 DK085461, U01 DK085466, U01 DK085499, U01 DK085504, U01 DK085509, U01 DK103180, U01 DK103153, U01 DK085476, U01 DK103266, U01 DK103282, U01 DK106984, U01 DK106994, U01 DK107013, U01 DK107014, UC4 DK106993, UC4 DK11700901 and the JDRF. The contents of this article are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH or the JDRF.” This publication was made possible with support from Grant Numbers, KL2TR002530 (A Carroll, PI), and UL1TR002529 (A. Shekhar, PI) from the National Institutes of Health, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, Clinical and Translational Science Award.