The Importance of Office Blood Pressure Measurement Frequency and Methodology in Evaluating the Prevalence of Hypertension in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes: The SWEET International Database
Research design and methods: A total of 27,120 individuals with T1D, aged 5-18 years were analyzed. Participants were grouped into those with BP measurements at ≥3 visits (n=10,440) and <3 visits, (n=16,680) per year, and stratified by age and sex. A subgroup analysis was performed on 15,742 individuals from centers providing a score indicating BP measurement accuracy.
Results: Among participants with BP measurement at ≥3 visits, the prevalence of hypertension was lower compared with those with <3 visits (10.8% vs 17.5% p<0.001), whereas elevated BP and normotension was higher (17.5% and 71.7% vs 15.3% and 67.1% respectively; both p<0.001). The prevalence of hypertension and elevated BP was higher in individuals aged ≥13 years than in younger ones (p<0.001) and in males than females (p<0.001). In linear regression models, systolic and diastolic BP were independently determined by the BP measurement methodology.
Conclusions: The estimated prevalence of elevated BP and hypertension in children and adolescents with T1D is almost 30% and depends on the BP measurement methodology. Less frequent BP evaluation may overestimate the prevalence of hypertension.