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T Cell Epitopes and Neo-epitopes in Type 1 Diabetes: A Comprehensive Update and Reappraisal

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posted on 22.06.2020 by Ada Admin, Eddie A. James, Roberto Mallone, Sally C. Kent, Teresa P. DiLorenzo
The autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes is characterized by effector T cell responses to pancreatic beta cell-derived peptides presented by HLA class I and class II molecules, leading ultimately to beta cell demise and insulin insufficiency. Although a given HLA molecule presents a vast array of peptides, only those recognized by T cells are designated as epitopes. Given their intimate link to etiology, the discovery and characterization of T cell epitopes is a critical aspect of type 1 diabetes research. Understanding epitope recognition is also crucial for the pursuit of antigen-specific immunotherapies and implementation of strategies for T cell monitoring. For these reasons, a cataloging and appraisal of the T cell epitopes targeted in type 1 diabetes was completed over a decade ago, providing an important resource for both the research and the clinical communities. Here we present a much-needed update and reappraisal of this earlier work, and include an online appendix that cross-indexes each epitope with its primary references and Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) identifier. Our analysis includes a grading scale to score the degree of evidence available for each epitope, which conveys our perspective on several useful criteria for epitope evaluation. While providing an efficient summary of the arguably impressive current state of knowledge, this work also brings to light several deficiencies. These include the need for improved epitope validation, as few epitopes score highly by the criteria employed, and the dearth of investigations of the epitopes recognized in the context of several under-studied type 1 diabetes-associated HLA molecules.

Funding

Work in the laboratory of E.A.J. is supported by grants from the JDRF (1-SRA-2017-344-S-B and 2-SRA-2018-551-S-B). Work in the laboratory of R.M. is supported by grants from the JDRF (2-SRA-2016-164-Q-R), the Helmsley Charitable Trust (1901-03689), the Fondation Francophone pour la Recherche sur le Diabète, the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-19-CE15-0014-01), the Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (EQU20193007831), and the Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking (INNODIA, 115797), which receives support from the EU Horizon 2020 program, the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, JDRF, and the Helmsley Charitable Trust. Work in the laboratory of S.C.K. is supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (UC4 DK116284). S.C.K. is the George F. and Sybil H. Fuller Term Chair in Diabetes. Work in the laboratory of T.P.D. is supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (R01 DK120420; and P30 DK020541 which supports the Einstein-Mount Sinai Diabetes Research Center), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (R01 AI123730), and the American Diabetes Association (1-16-IBS-069). T.P.D. is the Diane Belfer, Cypres & Endelson Families Faculty Scholar in Diabetes Research

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