American Diabetes Association
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Sex differences in age of diagnosis, HLA-genotype, and autoantibody profile in children with type 1 diabetes

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posted on 2023-09-12, 20:26 authored by Jasaman Tojjar, Matti Cervin, Emma Hedlund, Qefsere Brahimi, Gun Forsander, Helena Elding Larsson, Johnny Ludvigsson, Ulf Samuelsson, Claude Marcus, Martina Persson, Annelie Carlsson

Objective. To examine sex differences in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (T1D) with respect to age at diagnosis, presence of autoantibodies (GADA, IA-2A, IAA, and ZnT8A), and HLA risk.

Research design and Methods. A population-based nationwide sample of 3,645 Swedish children at T1D diagnosis was used.

Results. Girls were younger at T1D diagnosis (9.53 vs 10.23 years; P < .001), more likely to be autoantibody-positive (94.7% vs 92.0%; P = .002), more often positive for multiple autoantibodies (P < .001), more likely to be positive for GADA (64.9% vs 49.0%; P < .001) and less likely to be positive for IAA (32.3% vs 33.8%; P = .016). Small sex differences in HLA risk were found in children under 9 years of age.

Conclusions. The disease mechanisms leading to T1D may influence the immune system differently in girls and boys.


Funding: BDD is funded by Barndiabetesfonden (the Swedish Child Diabetes Foundation). The study sponsors were not involved in the design of the study; the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; writing the report; or the decision to submit the report for publication.