Remnant Cholesterol is an Independent Predictor of Type 2 Diabetes: a nationwide population-based cohort study
OBJECTIVE: Although the atherogenic effect of remnant cholesterol (remnant-C) has been widely recognized, the relationship between remnant-C and glucose metabolism remains unclear. This retrospective longitudinal study investigated the relationship between remnant-C and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a nationwide cohort of Korean adults.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 8,485,539 Korean adults without diabetes participated in the national health screening in 2009 and were followed up until 2019. The relationship between remnant-C quartiles and incident T2D was examined by Cox regression models. The risk of incident T2D over the continuum of remnant-C was examined with cubic spline analysis.
RESULTS: During the median follow-up period of 9.28 years, 584,649 (6.8%) individuals developed T2D. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, participants in the upper quartile of remnant-C had a higher risk of T2D, with hazard ratios of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.24–1.27) in the second quartile and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.50–1.53) in the third quartile, 1.95 (1.93–1.97) in the fourth quartile, compared to the lowest quartile. The increase in the risk of T2D owing to high remnant-C concentration was more profound in individuals with fewer traditional T2D risks such as women, and absence of metabolic abnormalities including impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Moreover, the magnitude of the increased risk for incident T2D in individuals with higher remnant-C quartiles was higher in younger than older participants.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that remnant-C profiles provide additional information in predicting future progression of T2D, independent of the conventional lipid parameters.