American Diabetes Association
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Relationships between the Cumulative Incidences of Long-Term Complications in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: the DCCT/EDIC Study

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posted on 2022-12-15, 17:44 authored by Ionut Bebu, Barbara H. Braffett, Ian H. de Boer, Lloyd P. Aiello, John P. Bantle, Gayle M. Lorenzi, William H. Herman, Rose A. Gubitosi-Klug, Bruce A. Perkins, John M. Lachin, Mark E. Molitch, DCCT/EDIC Research Group


Objective To describe the relationships between the cumulative incidences of long-term complications in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and assess whether observed associations are independent of age, duration of diabetes, and glycemic levels. 

Methods Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), clinically significant macular edema (CSME), reduced eGFR, amputations, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality were assessed in DCCT/EDIC over ~30 years. 

Results The cumulative incidence of complications ranged from 3% (amputations) to 37% (CSME). There were large differences in the cumulative incidence of: PDR between participants with versus without prior CSME (66% vs. 15%), reduced eGFR (59% vs. 29%) and amputation (68% vs. 32%); reduced eGFR with/without prior PDR (25% vs. 9%), amputation (48% vs. 13%), and CVD (30% vs. 11%); CVD with/without prior reduced eGFR (37% vs. 14%) and amputation (50% vs. 16%); and mortality with/without prior reduced eGFR (22% vs. 9%), amputation (35% vs. 8%) and CVD (25% vs. 8%).  Adjusted for age, duration of T1D, and mean updated HbA1c, the complications and associations with higher risk included: PDR with CSME (HR=1.88, 95%CI:[1.42,2.50]), reduced eGFR (HR=1.41, [1.01,1.97]), and CVD (HR=1.43, [1.06,1.92]); CSME with higher risk of PDR (HR=3.94, [3.18,4.89]), reduced eGFR (HR=1.49, [1.10,2.01]), and CVD (HR=1.35, [1.03,1.78]); reduced eGFR with higher risk of CVD (HR=2.09, [1.44,3.03]) and death (HR=3.40, [2.35,4.92]); amputation(s) with death (HR=2.97, [1.70,2.90]); and CVD with reduced eGFR (HR=1.59, [1.08,2.34]) and death (HR=1.95, [1.32,2.90]).

Conclusions Long term micro- and macrovascular complications and mortality are highly correlated. Age, diabetes duration, and glycemic levels do not completely explain these associations. 


The DCCT/EDIC has been supported by cooperative agreement grants (1982-1993, 2012-2022), and contracts (1982-2012) with the Division of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (current grant numbers U01 DK094176 and U01 DK094157), and through support by the National Eye Institute, the National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, the General Clinical Research Centers Program (1993-2007), and Clinical Translational Science Center Program (2006-present), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.


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