Processes Underlying Glycemic Deterioration in Type 2 Diabetes: An IMI DIRECT Study
We investigated the processes underlying glycemic deterioration in type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Research Design and Methods
732 recently diagnosed T2D patients from the IMI-DIRECT study were extensively phenotyped over three years, including measures of insulin sensitivity (OGIS), β-cell glucose sensitivity (GS) and insulin clearance (CLIm) from mixed meal tests, liver enzymes, lipid profiles, and baseline regional fat from MRI. The associations between the longitudinal metabolic patterns and HbA1c deterioration, adjusted for changes in BMI and in diabetes medications, were assessed via stepwise multivariable linear and logistic regression.
Faster HbA1c progression was independently associated with faster deterioration of OGIS and GS, and increasing CLIm; visceral or liver fat, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides had further independent, though weaker, roles (R2=0.38). A subgroup of patients with a markedly higher progression rate (fast progressors) was clearly distinguishable considering these variables only (discrimination capacity from AUROC=0.94). The proportion of fast progressors was reduced from 56% to 8-10% in subgroups in which only one trait among OGIS, GS and CLIm was relatively stable (odds ratios 0.07 to 0.09). T2D polygenic risk score and baseline pancreatic fat, GLP-1, glucagon, diet, and physical activity did not show an independent role.
ConclusionsDeteriorating insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, increasing insulin clearance, high visceral or liver fat, and worsening of the lipid profile are the crucial factors mediating glycemic deterioration of T2D patients in the initial phase of the disease. Stabilization of a single trait among insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and insulin clearance may be relevant to prevent progression.