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Post-intervention Effects of Varying Treatment Arms on Glycemic Failure and Beta-Cell Function in the TODAY Study

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posted on 10.11.2020, 21:51 by Rachelle Gandica, Barbara H. Braffett, Lorraine E. Levitt Katz, Neil H. White, Jeanie B. Tryggestad, Mitchell E. Geffner, Sonia Caprio, Siripoom McKay, Kristen J. Nadeau, Silva Arslanian, The TODAY Study Group
Objective: The Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) trial demonstrated that glycemic failure rates were significantly lower in youth randomized to metformin plus rosiglitazone treatment compared to metformin alone or metformin plus intensive lifestyle intervention. At end of study, rosiglitazone was permanently discontinued, and routine diabetes care resumed. Herein, we report post-intervention glycemic failure rates in TODAY participants over an additional 36 months of follow-up for the three original treatment arms and describe insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function outcomes.

Research Design and Methods: A total of 699 participants were randomized during TODAY, of whom 572 enrolled in the TODAY2 observational follow-up. Glycemic failure was defined as HbA1c ≥8% over a 6-month period or inability to wean from temporary insulin therapy within 3 months after acute metabolic decompensation during TODAY or a sustained HbA1c ≥8% over two consecutive visits during TODAY2. Oral glucose tolerance tests were conducted and insulin sensitivity, insulinogenic index, and oral disposition index (oDI) were calculated.

Results: During the 36 months of TODAY2, glycemic failure rates did not differ among participants by original treatment group assignment. Insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function deteriorated rapidly during the 36 months of TODAY2 routine diabetes care, but did not differ by treatment group assignment.

Conclusions: The added benefit of preventing glycemic failure by using rosiglitazone as a second agent in youth-onset type 2 diabetes did not persist after its discontinuation. More work is needed to address this rapid progression to avoid long-term diabetes complications.


This work was completed with funding from NIDDK and the NIH Office of the Director through grants U01-DK61212, U01-DK61230, U01-DK61239, U01-DK61242, and U01-DK61254. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK project office was involved in all aspects of the study, including: design and conduct; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; review and approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.