Polygenic Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes in Africa
Research Design and Methods. Using the PRSice software, ethnic-specific PRSs were computed with weights from the type 2 diabetes GWAS multi-ancestry meta-analysis of 228,499 cases and 1,178,783 controls. The South African Zulu study (1602 cases and 981 controls) was used as the target data set. Validation and assessment of the best predictive PRS association with age at diagnosis was done in the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) study (2148 cases and 2161 controls).
Results. The discriminatory ability of the African American and Multi-ethnic PRS were similar. However, the African American derived PRS was more transferable in all the countries represented in the AADM cohort, and predictive of type 2 diabetes in the country combined analysis compared to the European and multi-ethnic derived scores. Notably, participants in the 10th decile of this PRS had a 3.63-fold greater risk (OR 3.63; 95%CI (2.19 - 4.03), p = 2.79 x 10-17) per risk allele of developing diabetes and were diagnosed 2.6 years earlier compared to those in the first decile.
Conclusions African American derived PRS enhances polygenic prediction of type 2 diabetes in continental Africans. Improved representation of non-European populations (including Africans) in GWAS promises to provide better tools for precision medicine interventions in type 2 diabetes.