Novel Biochemical Markers of Glycemia to Predict Pregnancy Outcomes in Women With Type 1 Diabetes
Methods: 157 women from the CGM in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes trial (CONCEPTT) were included in this pre-specified secondary analysis. HbA1c, CGM data, and alternative biochemical markers (glycated CD59, 1,5 anhydroglucitol, fructosamine and glycated albumin) were compared at approximately 12, 24 and 34 weeks gestation using logistic regression and ROC curves to predict pregnancy complications (pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery, large-for-gestational-age, neonatal hypoglycemia, admission to neonatal intensive care unit).
Results: HbA1c, CGM metrics, and alternative laboratory markers were all significantly associated with obstetric and neonatal outcomes at 24 weeks gestation. More outcomes were associated with CGM metrics during the 1st trimester and with laboratory markers (area under ROC generally <0.7) during the third trimester. Time-in-range (TIR; 63-140 mg/dl; 3.5-7.8 mmol/l) and time-above-range (TAR; >140 mg/dl; >7.8 mmol/l) were the most consistently predictive CGM metrics. HbA1c was also a consistent predictor of suboptimal pregnancy outcomes. Some alternative laboratory markers showed promise, but overall, they had lower predictive ability than HbA1c.
Conclusions: HbA1c is still an important biomarker for obstetric and neonatal outcomes in type 1 diabetes pregnancy. Alternative biochemical markers of glycemia and other CGM metrics did not substantially increase the prediction of pregnancy outcomes compared to widely available HbA1c and increasingly available CGM metrics (TIR and TAR).