Neutrophil extracellular traps induce glomerular endothelial cell dysfunction and pyroptosis in diabetic kidney disease
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a network structure composed of loose chromatin and embedded with multiple proteins. Here, we observed increased NETs deposition in the glomeruli of DKD patients and diabetic mice (streptozotocin-induced or db/db mice). After degrading NETs with DNase I, diabetic mice exhibited attenuated glomerulopathy and glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) injury. We also observed alleviated glomerulopathy and GECs injury in peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4)-knockout mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In vitro, NET-induced GECs pyroptosis was characterized by pore formation in the cell membrane, dysregulation of multiple genes involved in cell membrane function, and increased expression of pyroptosis-related proteins. Strengthening the GECs surface charge by oleylamine significantly inhibited NETs-induced GECs pyroptosis. These findings suggest that the GECs charge related pyroptosis is involved in DKD progression which promoted by NETs.