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Metabolomics and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

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posted on 03.03.2022, 15:36 authored by Jakub Morze, Clemens Wittenbecher, Lukas Schwingshackl, Anna Danielewicz, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Frank B Hu, Marta Guasch-Ferré
Background Due to the rapidly increasing availability of metabolomics data in prospective studies, an update of the meta evidence on metabolomics and type 2 diabetes risk is warranted.

Purpose To conduct an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of plasma, serum, or urine metabolite markers and incident type 2 diabetes.

Data Sources PubMed and Embase.

Study Selection Prospective observational studies investigating the relationship between plasma, serum, or urine metabolites using high throughput techniques and incident type 2 diabetes.

Data Extraction Baseline metabolites per-standard deviation risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals for incident type 2 diabetes were extracted from all eligible studies.

Data Synthesis Sixty-one reports with 71,196 participants and 11,771 type 2 diabetes cases/events were included in the updated review. Overall, 412 metabolites were meta-analyzed, of which 123 were statistically significantly associated (FDR-P<0.05) with type 2 diabetes risk. Higher plasma and serum levels of certain amino acids (branched-chain, aromatic, alanine, glutamate, lysine, and methionine), carbohydrates and energy-related metabolites (mannose, trehalose, pyruvate), acylcarnitines (C4DC, C4OH, C5, C5OH, C8:1), the majority of meta-analyzed glycerolipids (di- and triacylglycerols), (lyso)phosphatidylethanolamines, and ceramides were associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.07-2.58). Higher levels of glycine, glutamine, betaine, indolepropionate, and (lyso)phosphatidylcholines were associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk (HR 0.69-0.90).

Limitations Substantial heterogeneity (I2>50%, t2>0.1) was observed for some of the metabolites.

Conclusions Several plasma and serum metabolites, including amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates are associated with type 2 diabetes risk.

Funding

This work was supported by National Institutes of Health research grants R21AG070375-01A1, P30 DK46200, R01DK112940, and R01DK127601. MG-F is supported by American Diabetes Association grant 1-18-PMF-029. The funding sources played no role in the design, collection, analysis, or interpretation of the data or in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

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