Metabolic, Intestinal, and Cardiovascular Effects of Sotagliflozin Compared With Empagliflozin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: a Randomized, Double-Blind Study
Inhibiting sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLT) improves glycemic and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated the differential impact of selective SGLT2 inhibition and dual inhibition of SGLT1 and SGLT2 on multiple parameters.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Using a double-blind, parallel-group design, we randomized 40 patients with T2D and hypertension to receive the dual SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitor sotagliflozin 400 mg or the selective SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin 25 mg, with pre-existing antihypertensive treatment, for 8 weeks. In an in-house testing site, mixed meal tolerance tests (MMTTs) and other laboratory and clinical evaluations were used to study metabolic, intestinal, cardiovascular, and urinary parameters over 24 hours.
Changes from baseline in glycemic and blood pressure control; intestinal, urine, and metabolic parameters; and cardiovascular biomarkers were generally similar with sotagliflozin and empagliflozin. During the breakfast MMTT, sotagliflozin significantly reduced incremental area under the curve (AUC) values for postprandial glucose, insulin, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and significantly increased incremental AUCs for postprandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) relative to empagliflozin, consistent with sotagliflozin-mediated inhibition of intestinal SGLT1. These changes waned during lunch and dinner MMTTs. Both treatments significantly lowered GIP incremental AUCs relative to baseline over the 14-hour MMTT interval; the most vigorous effect was seen with sotagliflozin soon after start of the first meal of the day. No serious or severe adverse events were observed.
Changes from baseline in glycemic and blood pressure control, cardiovascular biomarkers, and other parameters were comparable between sotagliflozin and empagliflozin. However, sotagliflozin but not empagliflozin inhibited intestinal SGLT1 after breakfast as shown by larger changes in postprandial glucose, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 AUCs, particularly after breakfast. Additional study is warranted to assess the clinical relevance of transient SGLT1 inhibition and differences in incretin responses.