Lysosomal acid lipase drives adipocyte cholesterol homeostasis and modulates lipid storage in obesity, independent of autophagy
figureposted on 02.11.2020, 23:21 by Ada Admin, Camille Gamblin, Christine Rouault, Amélie Lacombe, Francina Langa-Vives, Dominique Farabos, Antonin Lamaziere, Karine Clément, Emmanuel L. Gautier, Laurent Yvan-Charvet, Isabelle Dugail
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Besides cytoplasmic lipase-dependent adipocyte fat mobilization, the metabolic role of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), highly expressed in adipocytes is unclear. We show that the isolated adipocyte fraction but not the total undigested adipose tissue from obese patients has decreased LAL expression compared to non-obese. Lentiviral-mediated LAL knockdown in 3T3L1 to mimic obese adipocytes condition did not affect lysosome density or autophagic flux, but increased triglyceride storage and disrupted ER cholesterol as indicated by activated SREBP. Conversely, mice with adipose-specific LAL overexpression (Adpn-rtTA x TetO-hLAL) gained less weight and body fat than controls on a high fat diet, resulting in ameliorated glucose tolerance. Blood cholesterol was lower than controls albeit similar triglyceridemia. Adipose-LAL overexpressing mice phenotype is dependent on the housing temperature, and develops only under mild hypothermic stress (room temperature) but not at thermoneutrality (30°C), demonstrating prominent contribution of BAT thermogenesis. LAL overexpression increased BAT free cholesterol, decreased SREBP targets, and induced the expression of genes involved in initial steps of mitochondrial steroidogenesis, suggesting conversion of lysosome-derived cholesterol to pregnenolone. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that adipose LAL drives tissue cholesterol homeostasis and impacts BAT metabolism, suggesting beneficial LAL activation in anti-obesity approaches aimed at reactivating thermogenic energy expenditure.