Loss of MANF Causes Childhood Onset Syndromic Diabetes due to Increased Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
figureposted on 26.01.2021, 23:31 by Hossam Montaser, Kashyap A Patel, Diego Balboa, Hazem Ibrahim, Väinö Lithovius, Anna Näätänen, Vikash Chandra, Korcan Demir, Sezer Acar, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Kevin Colclough, Jonathan M. Locke, Matthew Wakeling, Maria Lindahl, Andrew Hattersley, Jonna Saarimäki-Vire, Timo Otonkoski
MANF is an endoplasmic reticulum resident protein that plays a crucial role in attenuating ER stress responses. Although MANF is indispensable for the survival and function of mouse beta cells, its precise role in human beta cell development and function is unknown. Herein, we show that lack of MANF in humans results in diabetes due to increased ER stress leading to impaired beta cell function. We identified two patients from different families with childhood diabetes and a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the MANF gene. To study the role of MANF in human beta cell development and function, we knocked out the MANF gene in human embryonic stem cells and differentiated them into pancreatic endocrine cells. Loss of MANF induced mild ER stress and impaired insulin processing capacity of beta cells in vitro. Upon implantation to immunocompromised mice, the MANF knockout grafts presented elevated ER stress and functional failure, particularly in diabetic recipients. By describing a new form of monogenic neurodevelopmental diabetes syndrome caused by disturbed ER function, we highlight the importance of adequate ER stress regulation for proper human beta cell function and demonstrate the crucial role of MANF in this process.