Lack of Brain Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 Causes Growth Retardation, with Decreased Expression of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in the Hypothalamus
figureposted on 12.05.2021, 22:27 by Takanori Hayashi, Tetsuya Kubota, Inoue Mariko, Iseki Takamoto, Masakazu Aihara, Yoshitaka Sakurai, Nobuhiro Wada, Takashi Miki, Toshimasa Yamauchi, Naoto Kubota, Takashi Kadowaki
Insulin receptor substrate-1 (Irs1) is one of the major substrates for insulin receptor and Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor tyrosine kinases. Systemic Irs1-deficient mice show growth retardation, with resistance to insulin and IGF-1, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. For this study, we generated mice with brain-specific deletion of Irs1 (NIrs1KO mice). The NIrs1KO mice exhibited lower body weights, shorter bodies and bone lengths, and decreased bone density. Moreover, the NIrs1KO mice exhibited increased insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization in the skeletal muscle. Although the ability of the pituitary to secrete growth hormone (GH) remained intact, the amount of hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) was significantly decreased and accordingly, the pituitary GH mRNA expression levels were impaired in these mice. Plasma GH and IGF-1 levels were also lower in the NIrs1KO mice. The expression levels of GHRH protein in the median eminence, where Irs1 antibody staining is observed, were markedly decreased in the NIrs1KO mice. In vitro, neurite elongation after IGF-1 stimulation was significantly impaired by Irs1 downregulation in the cultured N-38 hypothalamic neurons. In conclusion, brain Irs1 plays important roles in the regulation of neurite outgrowth of GHRH neurons, somatic growth, and glucose homeostasis.