Intensive risk factor management and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes: the ACCORD Trial
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Research Design and Methods: CAN was defined as heart rate variability indices below the 5th percentile of the normal distribution. Of 10,250 ACCORD participants, 71% (n=7,275) had a CAN evaluation at study entry and at least once after randomization. The effects of intensive interventions on CAN were analyzed among these subjects through generalized linear mixed models.
Results: As compared to standard intervention, intensive glucose treatment reduced CAN risk by 16% (OR=0.84, 95%CI 0.75–0.94, p=0.003) – an effect driven by individuals without cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline (OR= 0.73, 95%CI 0.63–0.85, p<0.0001) rather than those with CVD (OR=1.10, 95%CI 0.91–1.34, p=0.34) (p for interaction=0.001). Intensive blood pressure intervention decreased CAN risk by 25% (OR=0.75, 95% CI 0.63–0.89, p=0.001), especially in patients ≥65 years old (OR=0.66, 95% CI 0.49–0.88, p=0.005) (p for interaction =0.05). Fenofibrate did not have a significant effect on CAN (OR=0.91, 95%CI 0.78–1.07, p=0.26).
Conclusions: These data confirm a beneficial effect of intensive glycemic therapy and demonstrate, for the first time, a similar benefit of intensive blood pressure control on CAN in T2D. A negative CVD history identifies T2D patients who especially benefit from intensive glycemic control for CAN prevention.