Intensive Care Unit Admission, Mechanical Ventilation, and Mortality Among Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Hospitalized for COVID-19 in the U.S.
To assess whether risk of severe outcomes among patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) hospitalized for COVID-19 differs from patients without diabetes (DM) or with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
Research Design and Methods.
Using the Premier Healthcare Special COVID-19 Release Database records of patients discharged after COVID-19 hospitalization from US hospitals from March to November 2020 (N=269,674, after exclusion), we estimated risk differences (RD) and risk ratios (RR) of intensive care unit admission or invasive mechanical ventilation (ICU/MV) and of death among patients with T1DM compared with patients without DM or with T2DM. Logistic models were adjusted for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Models adjusted for additional demographic and clinical characteristics were used to examine whether other factors account for the associations between T1DM and severe COVID-19 outcomes.
Compared with patients without DM, T1DM was associated with a 21% higher absolute risk of ICU/MV (RD = 0.21, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=0.19–0.24; RR=1.49, 95% CI=1.43–1.56) and a 5% higher absolute risk of mortality (RD=0.05, 95% CI=0.03–0.07; RR=1.40, 95% CI=1.24–1.57), adjusting for age, sex, and race or ethnicity. Compared with patients with T2DM, T1DM was associated with a 9% higher absolute risk of ICU/MV (RD=0.09, 95% CI=0.07–0.12; RR=1.17, 95% CI=1.12–1.22), but no difference in mortality (RD=0.00, 95% CI=-0.02–0.02; RR=1.00, 95% CI=0.89–1.13). After adjustment for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurring before or at COVID-19 diagnosis, patients with T1DM no longer had increased risk of ICU/MV (RD=0.01, 95% CI=-0.01–0.03) and had lower mortality (RD=-0.03, 95% CI=-0.05– -0.01) compared to patients with T2DM.
Conclusions.Patients with T1DM hospitalized for COVID-19 are at higher risk for severe outcomes than those without DM. Higher ICU/MV risk compared with patients with T2DM was largely accounted for by the presence of DKA. These findings might further guide recommendations related to DM management and the prevention of COVID-19.