Incident type 2 diabetes and risk of fracture: a comparative cohort analysis using UK primary care records
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Research Design and Methods In this cohort study we used routinely-collected UK primary care data from The Health Improvement Network. In adults (>35 years) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 2004-2013 fractures sustained until 2019 were identified and compared to fractures sustained in individuals without diabetes. Multivariable models estimated time to first fracture following diagnosis of diabetes. Annual prevalence rates included at least one fracture in a given year.
Results Among 174,244 individuals with incident type 2 diabetes and 747,290 without diabetes, there was no increased risk of fracture among males with diabetes (adjusted hazards ratio (aHR) 0.97 (95%CI 0.94, 1.00)) and a small reduced risk among females (aHR 0.94, (95%CI 0.92, 0.96)). In those aged 85 years and over those in the diabetes cohort were at significantly lower risk of incident fracture (Males: aHR 0.85, 95%CI 0.71, 1.00; Females: aHR 0.85, 95%CI 0.78, 0.94). For those in the most deprived areas, aHRs were 0.90 (95%CI 0.83, 0.98) for males and 0.91 (95%CI 0.85, 0.97) for females. Annual fracture prevalence rates, by sex, were similar for those with and without type 2 diabetes.
Conclusion We found no evidence to suggest a higher risk of fracture following diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. After a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes individuals should be encouraged to make positive lifestyle changes, including undertaking weight-bearing physical activities that improve bone health.