Impacts of COVID-19 on glycemia and risk of diabetic ketoacidosis
Reports indicate that COVID-19 may impact pancreatic function and increase type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, although real-world COVID-19 impacts on HbA1c and T2D are unknown. We tested whether COVID-19 increased HbA1c, risk of T2D, or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We compared pre- and post-COVID-19 HbA1c, and T2D risk in a large real-world clinical cohort of 8,755 COVID-19(+) patients and 11,998 COVID-19(-) matched controls. We investigated if DKA risk was modified in COVID-19(+) patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) (N=701) or T2D (N=21,830), or by race and sex. We observed a statistically significant, albeit clinically insignificant, HbA1c increase post-COVID-19 (all patients ΔHbA1c=0.06%; with T2D ΔHbA1c=0.1%), and no increase among COVID-19(-) patients. COVID-19(+) patients were 40% more likely to be diagnosed with T2D compared to COVID-19(-) patients and 28% more likely for the same HbA1c change as COVID-19(-) patients, indicating that COVID-19 attributed T2D risk may be due to increased recognition during COVID-19 management. DKA in COVID-19(+) patients with T1D was not increased. COVID-19(+) Black patients with T2D displayed disproportionately increased DKA risk (HR:2.46[1.48-6.09], P=0.004) compared to White patients, suggesting a need for further clinical awareness and investigation.