Illumination of the Endogenous Insulin-Regulated TBC1D4 Interactome in Human Skeletal Muscle
figureposted on 22.02.2022, 20:43 authored by Jeppe K. Larsen, Magnus R. Larsen, Jesper B. Birk, Dorte E. Steenberg, Janne R. Hingst, Kurt Højlund, Alexandra Chadt, Hadi Al-Hasani, Atul S. Deshmukh, Jørgen F.P. Wojtaszewski, Rasmus Kjøbsted
Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake is a key process in glycemic control. This process depends on the redistribution of glucose transporters to the surface membrane, a process which involves regulatory proteins such as TBC1D1 and TBC1D4. Accordingly, a TBC1D4 loss-of-function mutation in human skeletal muscle is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and observations from carriers of a TBC1D1 variant associate this protein to a severe obesity phenotype. Here, we identified interactors of the endogenous TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle by an unbiased proteomics approach. We detected 76 proteins as candidate TBC1D4 interactors. The binding of 12 of these interactors were regulated by insulin, including proteins known to be involved in glucose metabolism (e.g. 14-3-3 proteins and ACTN4). TBC1D1 also co-precipitated with TBC1D4 and vice versa in both human and mouse skeletal muscle. This interaction was not regulated by insulin nor exercise in young, healthy, lean individuals. Similarly, the exercise- and insulin-regulated phosphorylation of the TBC1D1-TBC1D4 complex was intact. In contrast, we observed an altered interaction as well as compromised insulin-stimulated phospho-regulation of the TBC1D1-TBC1D4 complex in muscle of obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Altogether, we provide a repository of TBC1D4 interactors in human and mouse skeletal muscle, which serve as potential regulators of TBC1D4 function and, thus, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle.