American Diabetes Association
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Identification of genetic variation influencing metformin response in a multi-ancestry genome-wide association study in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

Version 2 2023-01-03, 15:26
Version 1 2022-12-16, 18:12
posted on 2023-01-03, 15:26 authored by Josephine Li, James A. Perry, Kathleen A. Jablonski, Shylaja Srinivasan, Ling Chen, Jennifer N. Todd, Maegan Harden, Josep M. Mercader, Qing Pan, Adem Y. Dawed, Sook Wah Yee, Ewan R. Pearson, Kathleen M. Giacomini, Ayush Giri, Adriana M. Hung, Shujie Xiao, L. Keoki Williams, Paul W. Franks, Robert L. Hanson, Steven E. Kahn, William C. Knowler, Toni I. Pollin, Jose C. Florez, Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group

Genome-wide significant loci for metformin response in type 2 diabetes reported elsewhere have not replicated in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). To assess pharmacogenetic interactions in pre-diabetes, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the DPP. Cox proportional hazards models tested associations with diabetes incidence in metformin (MET, n=876) and placebo (PBO, n=887) arms. Multiple linear regression assessed association with one-year change in metformin-related quantitative traits, adjusted for baseline trait, age, sex, and 10 ancestry principal components. We tested for gene-by-treatment interaction. No significant associations emerged for diabetes incidence. We identified four genome-wide significant variants after correcting for correlated traits (p<9×10-9). In MET, rs144322333 near ENOSF1 (minor allele frequency [MAF]AFR=0.07, MAFEUR=0.002) was associated with an increase in % glycated hemoglobin (per minor allele β=0.39 [95% CI 0.28, 0.50], p=2.8×10-12). Rs145591055 near OMSR (MAF=0.10 in American Indians), was associated with weight loss (kg) (per G allele β=-7.55 [95% CI -9.88, -5.22], p=3.2×10-10) in MET. Neither variant was significant in PBO; gene-by-treatment interaction was significant for both variants (p(G×T)<1.0×10-4). Replication in individuals with diabetes did not yield significant findings. A GWAS for metformin response in pre-diabetes revealed novel ethnic-specific associations that require further investigation but may have implications for tailored therapy.


The DPP Research Group gratefully acknowledges the commitment and dedication of the participants of the DPP and DPPOS. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under award numbers U01 DK048489, U01 DK048339, U01 DK048377, U01 DK048349, U01 DK048381, U01 DK048468, U01 DK048434, U01 DK048485, U01 DK048375, U01 DK048514, U01 DK048437, U01 DK048413, U01 DK048411, U01 DK048406, U01 DK048380, U01 DK048397, U01 DK048412, U01 DK048404, U01 DK048387, U01 DK048407, U01 DK048443, and U01 DK048400, by providing funding during DPP and DPPOS to the clinical centers and the Coordinating Center for the design and conduct of the study, and collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data. Funding was also provided by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute on Aging, the National Eye Institute, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, the National Cancer Institute, the Office of Research on Women’s Health, the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Diabetes Association.