Global, regional, and national prevalence of prediabetes in 2021 and 2045
Objective: To estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of prediabetes defined by impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG).
Research Design and Methods: We reviewed 7,014 publications for high-quality estimates of IGT (2-hour glucose, 7.8-11.0 mmol/L [140-199 mg/dL]) and IFG (fasting glucose, 6.1-6.9 mmol/L [110-125 mg/dL]) prevalence for each country. We used logistic regression to generate prevalence estimates for IGT and IFG among adults aged 20-79y in 2021 and projections for 2045. For countries without in-country data, we extrapolated estimates from countries with available data with similar geography, income, ethnicity, and language. Estimates were standardized to the age distribution for each country from the United Nations.
Results: Approximately two-thirds of countries did not have high-quality IGT or IFG data. There were 50 high-quality studies for IGT from 43 countries, and 43 high-quality studies for IFG from 40 countries. Eleven countries had data for both IGT and IFG. The global prevalence of IGT in 2021 was 9.1% (464 million) and is projected to increase to 10.0% (638 million) in 2045. The global prevalence of IFG in 2021 was 5.8% (298 million) and is projected to increase to 6.5% (414 million) in 2045. The 2021 prevalence of IGT and IFG were highest in high-income countries. In 2045, the largest relative growth in cases of IGT and IFG was in low-income countries.
Conclusions: The global burden of prediabetes is substantial and growing. Enhancing prediabetes surveillance is necessary to effectively implement diabetes prevention policies and interventions.