Endosomal sequestration of TLR4 antibody induces myeloid-derived suppressor cells and reverses acute Type 1 Diabetes
figureposted on 2022-01-18, 13:06 authored by Ada AdminAda Admin, Kathryn C.S. Locker, Kritika Kachapati, Yuehong Wu, Kyle J. Bednar, David Adams, Carolyn Patel, Hiroki Tsukamoto, Luke S Heuer, Bruce J. Aronow, Andrew B. Herr, William M. Ridgway
We previously showed that treating NOD mice with an agonistic monoclonal anti-TLR4/MD2 antibody (TLR4-Ab) reversed acute type one diabetes (T1D). Here, we show that TLR4-Ab reverses T1D by induction of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Unbiased gene expression analysis after TLR4-Ab treatment demonstrated upregulation of genes associated with CD11b+Ly6G+ myeloid cells, and downregulation of T cell genes. Further RNAseq of purified, TLR4-Ab treated CD11b+ cells showed significant upregulation of genes associated with bone marrow-derived CD11b+ cells and innate immune system genes. TLR4-Ab significantly increased percentages and numbers of CD11b+ cells. TLR4-Ab-induced CD11b+ cells, derived ex vivo from TLR4-Ab treated mice, suppress T cells, and TLR4-Ab-conditioned bone marrow cells suppress acute T1D when transferred into acutely diabetic mice. Thus, the TLR4-Ab-induced CD11b+ cells, by currently accepted definition, are MDSCs able to reverse T1D. To understand the TLR4-Ab mechanism we compared TLR4-Ab to TLR4 agonist LPS (which cannot reverse T1D). TLR4-Ab remains sequestered at least 48 times longer than LPS within early endosomes, alters TLR4 signaling and downregulates inflammatory genes and proteins including NFkB. TLR4-Ab in the endosome therefore induces a sustained, attenuated inflammatory response providing an ideal “second signal” for the activation/maturation of MDSCs that can reverse acute T1D.