Efficacy of Modern Diabetes Treatments- Dpp-4i, Sglt-2i, Glp-1ra- in White and Asian Patients With Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Data Sources:A literature search was conducted in PubMed of all randomized, placebo-controlled trials of DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1RA. The search strategy was developed based on medical subject sub-headings (MeSH) terms and keywords.
Study selection : 64 studies qualified for meta-analysis after full-text review based on pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. RCTs with at least 50 patients in each arm; >70% of population from Asian or White group; duration>=24 weeks; published up to March 2019 were selected for systematic review and meta-analysis.
Data extraction:Data extraction was done for aggregated study-level data , by two independent researchers. Absolute changes in HbA1c (%) from baseline to 24 weeks between the drug and placebo was considered as the primary endpoint of the study.
Data synthesis: Change in HbA1c was evaluated by computing mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between treatment and placebo arms.
Limitations: Study is based on summarized data and could not be separated based on East Asians and South Asians.
Conclusion : The glucose lowering efficacy of SGLT-2i, and to a lesser extent DPP-4i, was greater in studies of predominantly Asian ethnicity compared to studies of predominantly white ethnicity. There was no difference seen by ethnicity for GLP-1RA.