Effects of Metabolic Factors, Race-Ethnicity, and Sex on the Development of Nephropathy in Adolescents and Young Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Results From the TODAY Study
ResearchDesignandMethods: Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and
estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by serum creatinine and cystatin C
were assessed annually for up to 15 years after study entry. Markers of DKD
included micro- and macroalbuminuria (UACR ≥30 mg/g and ≥300 mg/g,
respectively), hyperfiltration (eGFR ≥135 ml/min/1.73m2), and rapid eGFR annual
decline (>3 ml/min/1.73m2, and/or ≥3.3%). The relationships between risk
factors and DKD were evaluated longitudinally using time-to-event models.
Results: Data were available on 677 participants, average age at baseline 14 years, with a mean follow-up of 10.2 ± 4.5 years. Each 1% increment in HbA1c conferred higher risk of microalbuminuria (HR: 1.24, 95% CI [1.18, 1.30]), macroalbuminuria (1.22, [1.11, 1.34]), hyperfiltration (1.11, [1.05, 1.17]), and rapid eGFR decline (1.12, [1.04, 1.20]). Higher SBP and baseline serum uric acid, and lower indices of β-cell function (C-peptide index and oral disposition index [oDI]), increased the risk of microalbuminuria, while higher triglycerides increased risk of micro- and macroalbuminuria. Lower oDI levels, female sex, and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with higher risk of hyperfiltration.
Conclusions: Elevated HbA1c was a shared risk factor among all phenotypes of DKD in this longitudinal cohort of adolescents and young adults with youth-onset type 2 diabetes. Other risk factors included elevated blood pressure, triglycerides, serum uric acid and β-cell dysfunction.