DNA methylation GrimAge and Incident Diabetes: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study
A total of 1,057 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study were included in the current analyses. We stratified the participants into three groups; normal weight, overweight, and obese. A one-year increase of GrimAge was associated with higher 10-year (Y15 to Y25) incidence of T2D (OR=1.06, 95% CI=1.01-1.11). GrimAge acceleration, which represents the deviation of GrimAge from chronological age, was derived from the residuals of a model of GrimAge and chronological age, and any GrimAge acceleration (Positive GrimAA; having GrimAge older than chronological age) was associated with significantly higher odds of 10-year incidence of T2D in obese participants (OR=2.57, 95% CI=1.61-4.11). Cumulative obesity was estimated by years since obesity onset, and GrimAge partially mediated the statistical association between cumulative obesity and incident diabetes or prediabetes (proportion mediated = 8.0%).In conclusion, both older and accelerated GrimAge were associated with higher risk of T2D, particularly among obese participants. GrimAge also statistically mediated the associations between cumulative obesity and T2D. Our findings suggest that epigenetic age measurements with DNA methylation can potentially be utilized as a risk factor or biomarker associated with T2D development.