American Diabetes Association
SGLT2i_vs_GLP-1_RA_Medicare_Appendix_Oct_25_2020_vF.pdf (568.9 kB)

Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors Versus Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists in Older Adults

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posted on 2021-01-25, 20:46 authored by Elisabetta Patorno, Ajinkya Pawar, Lily G. Bessette, Dae H. Kim, Chintan Dave, Robert J. Glynn, Medha N. Munshi, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Deborah J. Wexler, Seoyoung C. Kim
Objective: Both SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) demonstrated cardiovascular benefits in RCTs of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) generally <65 years and mostly with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) among real-world older adults.

Methods: Using Medicare data (4/2013-12/2016), we identified 90,094 1:1 propensity score-matched T2D patients ≥66 years initiating SGLT2i or GLP-1RA. Primary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, i.e., myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) and hospitalization for heart failure (HHF). Other outcomes included diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), genital infections (GI), fractures, lower-limb amputations (LLA), acute kidney injury (AKI), severe urinary tract infections (UTI), and overall mortality. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and rate differences (RD) per 1000 person-years, controlling for 140 baseline covariates.

Results: Compared with GLP-1RA, SGLT2i initiators had similar MACE risk [HR (95% CI)=0.98 (0.87-1.10); RD (95% CI)= -0.38 (-2.48,1.72)] and reduced HHF risk [HR=0.68 (0.57-0.80)]; RD= -3.23 (-4.68,-1.77)], over a median follow up of approximately 6 months. They also had 0.7 [RD=0.72 (0.02, 1.41)] more DKA, 0.9 [RD=0.90 (0.10, 1.70)] more LLA, 57.1 [RD=57.08 (53.45, 60.70)] more GI, and 7.1 [RD=-7.05 (-10.27, -3.83)] fewer AKI events.

Conclusions: Among older adults, SGLT2i had similar MACE risk, decreased HHF risk, and increased risk of DKA, LLA, and GI, vs. GLP-1RA.


This study was funded by the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. EP was supported by a career development grant (K08AG055670) from the National Institute on Aging.


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