Circulating C-Peptide Levels in Living Children and Young People and Pancreatic Beta Cell Loss in Pancreas Donors Across Type 1 Diabetes Disease Duration
C-peptide declines in type 1 diabetes although many long-duration patients retain low, but detectable levels. Histological analyses confirm that beta cells can remain following type 1 diabetes onset. We explored the trends observed in C-peptide decline in UK Genetic Resource Investigating Diabetes (UK GRID) cohort (N=4,079), with beta cell loss in pancreas donors from the network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD) biobank and the Exeter Archival Diabetes Biobank (EADB) (combined N=235), stratified by recently reported age at diagnosis endotypes (< 7, 7-12, ≥ 13 years) across increasing diabetes durations. The proportion of individuals with detectable C-peptide declined beyond the first year after diagnosis, but this was most marked in the youngest age group (< 1 year duration: age < 7 years: 18/20 (90%), 7-12 years: 107/110 (97%), ≥ 13 years: 58/61 (95%) versus. 1-5 years post diagnosis: < 7 years: 172/522 (33%), 7-12 years: 604/995 (61%), ≥ 13 years: 225/289 (78%)). A similar profile was observed in beta cell loss, with those diagnosed at younger ages experiencing more rapid loss of islets containing insulin-positive (insulin+) beta cells
< 1 year post diagnosis: age < 7 years: 23/26 (88%), 7-12 years: 32/33 (97%), ≥ 13 years: 22/25 (88%) versus. 1-5 years post diagnosis: < 7 years: 1/12 (8.3%) ,7-12 years: 7/13 (54%), ≥ 13 years: 7/8 (88%)). These data should be considered in the planning and interpretation of intervention trials designed to promote beta cell retention and function.