Childhood Body Mass Index and Fasting Glucose and Insulin Predict Adult Type-2 Diabetes: The International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort (i3C) Consortium
Research Design and Methods: We used data from The International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium. Data included childhood measurements (age 3-19) obtained during the 1970s-90s, a health questionnaire including self-report of adult T2DM (occurrence age, medication use) obtained at mean age 40 years, and a medical diagnosis registry (Finland).
Results: The sample included 6,738 participants. Of these, 436 (6.5%) reported onset of T2DM between ages 20-59 (mean 40.8) years, and 86% of them reported use of a confirmed anti-diabetic medication. BMI and glucose (age- and sex-standardized) were associated with incident T2DM after adjustment for cohort, country, sex, race, age and calendar year of measurement. Increasing levels of childhood BMI and glucose were related to incrementally increased risk of T2DM beginning at age 30, beginning at cut points below the 95th percentile for BMI and below 100 mg/dL for glucose. Insulin was positively associated with adult T2DM after adjustment for BMI and glucose and added to T2DM discrimination.
Conclusions: Childhood BMI and glucose are predictors of adult T2DM at levels previously considered to be within the normal range. These easy to apply measurements are appealing from a clinical perspective. Fasting insulin has the potential to be an additional predictor.