Characteristics of the Gut Microbiota and Metabolism in Patients With Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults: A Case-Control Study
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with gut dysbiosis. However, the relationship between the gut microbiota and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), sharing clinical and metabolic features with classic type 1 and type 2 diabetes, remains unclear. Here, we identified the characteristics of the gut microbiota and metabolic profiles in patients with LADA using a multi-omics approach.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This age- and sex-matched case-control study included 30 patients with LADA, 31 patients with classic type 1 diabetes, 30 patients with type 2 diabetes, and 29 healthy individuals. The gut microbiota profiles were identified via the 16S rRNA gene, and fecal and serum metabolites were measured via untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
LADA patients had a significantly different structure and composition of the gut microbiota and their metabolites as well as a severe deficiency of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria. The gut microbiota structure of the LADA patients was more similar to that of patients with type 1 diabetes who were positive for GAD antibody. We identified seven serum metabolite modules and eight fecal metabolite modules that differed between the LADA group and the other groups.
The characteristic gut microbiota and related metabolites of patients with LADA are associated with autoantibodies, glucose metabolism, islet function, and inflammatory factors, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of LADA. Future longitudinal studies should explore whether modulating the gut microbiota and related metabolites can alter the natural course of autoimmune diabetes, in the quest for new therapeutic.