Changes in Glucose Metabolism and Glycemic Status with Once-Weekly Subcutaneous Semaglutide 2.4 mg Among Participants with Prediabetes in the STEP Program
This analysis of 3,375 adults with overweight/obesity across the STEP 1, 3, and 4 trials evaluated whether more participants with prediabetes had normoglycemia after 68 weeks’ treatment with once-weekly semaglutide 2.4 mg plus lifestyle intervention versus placebo, and assessed changes in glucose metabolism in participants with prediabetes.
Research Design and Methods
STEP 1, 3, and 4 were phase 3, 68-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, multinational trials; STEP 4 had a 20-week semaglutide run-in and 48-week randomized period. Analyses included changes (week 0–68; before the washout period) in glycemic status (prespecified: STEP 1 and 3; post-hoc: STEP 4), and in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) among participants with prediabetes (post-hoc).
Significantly more participants with baseline (week 0) prediabetes (n=1,536) had normoglycemia at week 68 with semaglutide versus placebo (STEP 1, 84.1% vs. 47.8%; STEP 3, 89.5% vs. 55.0%; STEP 4, 89.8% vs. 70.4%; all P < 0.0001). Fewer participants with baseline normoglycemia had prediabetes at week 68 with semaglutide versus placebo (STEP 1, 2.9% vs. 10.9%; STEP 3, 3.2% vs. 5.8%; STEP 4, 1.1% vs. 5.0%). Semaglutide resulted in greater improvements in HbA1c, FPG, and HOMA-IR than placebo among participants with baseline prediabetes (all P < 0.01).
STEP 1, 3, and 4 collectively provide a robust assessment of the effects of semaglutide on glucose metabolism and prediabetes in a large cohort of adults with overweight/obesity while on treatment. Among participants with baseline prediabetes, 68 weeks’ treatment with semaglutide vs. placebo led to significant improvements in glucose metabolism and a higher likelihood of normoglycemia.