Body Weight Variability and the Risk of Cardiovascular Outcomes and Mortality in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: a Nationwide Cohort Study
Research Design and Methods: We enrolled 624,237 individuals with type 2 diabetes who underwent health examinations provided by the Korean National Health Insurance System between 2009 and 2010, with ≥3 body weight measurements within 5 years since enrollment and followed up until the end of 2017. We assessed body weight variability using four indices, including variability independent of the mean (VIM). Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed.
Results: During the follow-up, 15,832, 25,038, and 44,716 cases of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause mortality, respectively, were recorded. Body weight variability was associated with increased risks of major cardiovascular outcomes after adjusting for confounding variables. Compared with the hazard ratios (HRs) of the lowest quartile group, the HRs (95% CIs) of the highest quartile group of VIM for body weight were 1.15 (1.10–1.20), 1.22 (1.18–1.26), and 1.58 (1.53–1.62) for MI, stroke, and all-cause mortality, respectively.
Conclusions: Body weight variability was associated with increased risks of MI, stroke, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes patients and may be a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes in such patients. Appropriate interventions to maintain stable weight could positively influence health outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients.