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Association Between Change in Accelerometer-Measured and Self-Reported Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Disease in the Look AHEAD Trial

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posted on 10.02.2022, 16:05 by John M. Jakicic, Robert I. Berkowitz, Paula Bolin, George A. Bray, Jeanne M. Clark, Mace Coday, Caitlin Egan, Mary Evans, John P. Foreyt, Janet E. Fulton, Frank L. Greenway, Edward W. Gregg, Helen P. Hazuda, James O. Hill, Edward S. Horton, Van S. Hubbard, Robert W. Jeffery, Karen C. Johnson, Ruby Johnson, Steven E. Kahn, Anne Kure, Wei Lang, Cora E. Lewis, David M. Nathan, Jennifer Patricio, Anne Peters, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Henry Pownall, W. Jack Rejeski, Monika Safford, Kerry J. Stewart, Thomas A. Wadden, Michael P. Walkup, Rena R. Wing, Holly Wyatt
OBJECTIVE: To conduct post-hoc secondary analysis examining the association between change in physical activity (PA), measured with self-report and accelerometry, from baseline to 1 and 4 years and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in the Look AHEAD Trial.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were adults with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes with PA data at baseline and year 1 or 4 (n = 1,978). Participants were randomized to diabetes support and education or intensive lifestyle intervention. Measures included accelerometry-measured moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), self-reported PA, and composite (morbidity and mortality) CVD outcomes.

RESULTS: In pooled analyses of all participants, using Cox proportional hazards models, each 100 MET-min/wk increase in accelerometry-measured MVPA from baseline to 4 years was associated with decreased risk of the subsequent primary composite outcome of CVD. Results were consistent for changes in total MVPA [HR=0.97 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.99)] and MVPA accumulated in >10-minute bouts [HR=0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.98)], with a similar pattern for secondary CVD outcomes. Change in accelerometry-measured MVPA at 1 year and self-reported change in PA at 1 and 4 years were not associated with CVD outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: Increased accelerometry-measured MVPA from baseline to year 4 is associated with decreased risk of CVD outcomes. This suggests the need for long-term engagement in MVPA to reduce the risk of CVD in adults with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes.


Funded by the National Institutes of Health through cooperative agreements with the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: DK57136, DK57149, DK56990, DK57177, DK57171, DK57151, DK57182, DK57131, DK57002, DK57078, DK57154, DK57178, DK57219, DK57008, DK57135, and DK56992. Additional funding was provided by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institute of Nursing Research; National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; NIH Office of Research on Women’s Health; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This research was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The Indian Health Service (I.H.S.) provided personnel, medical oversight, and use of facilities. Additional support was received from The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions Bayview General Clinical Research Center (M01RR02719); the Massachusetts General Hospital Mallinckrodt General Clinical Research Center and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Clinical Research Center (M01RR01066); the Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center (RR025758-04); the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center General Clinical Research Center (M01RR00051) and Clinical Nutrition Research Unit (P30 DK48520); the University of Tennessee at Memphis General Clinical Research Center (M01RR0021140); the University of Pittsburgh General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) (M01RR000056), the Clinical Translational Research Center (CTRC) funded by the Clinical & Translational Science Award (UL1 RR 024153) and NIH grant (DK046204); the VA Puget Sound Health Care System Medical Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs; and the Frederic C. Bartter General Clinical Research Center (M01RR01346). The following organizations have committed to make major contributions to Look AHEAD: FedEx Corporation; Health Management Resources; LifeScan, Inc., a Johnson &