Ancestry-Matched and Cross-Ancestry Genetic Risk Scores of Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnant Women and Fetal Growth—A Study in an Ancestrally Diverse Cohort
figureposted on 2021-11-17, 22:50 authored by Marion Ouidir, Xuehuo Zeng, Suvo Chatterjee, Cuilin Zhang, Fasil Tekola-Ayele
Maternal genetic variants associated with offspring birth weight and adult type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk loci show some overlap. Whether T2D genetic risk influences longitudinal fetal weight and the gestational timing when these relationships begin is unknown. We investigated the associations of T2D genetic risk score (GRS) with longitudinal fetal weight and birth weight among 1,513 pregnant women from four ancestral groups. Women had up to 5 ultrasonography. Ancestry-matched GRS were constructed separately using 380 European- (GRSeur), 104 African- (GRSafr), and 189 East Asian- (GRSeas) related T2D loci discovered in different population groups. Among European Americans, the highest quartile GRSeur was significantly associated with 53.8 g higher fetal weight (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.2-88.5 g) over the pregnancy. The associations began at gestational week 24 and continued through week 40, with a 106.8 g (95% CI: 6.5-207.1 g) increase in birth weight. The findings were similar in analysis further adjusted for maternal glucose challenge test results. No consistent association was found using ancestry-matched or cross-ancestry GRS in non-Europeans. In conclusion, T2D genetic susceptibility may influence fetal growth starting at mid-second trimester among Europeans. Absence of similar associations in non-Europeans urges the need for further genetic T2D studies in diverse ancestries.