Adipocyte thyroid hormone β receptor-mediated hormone action fine-tunes the intracellular glucose and lipid metabolism and systemic homeostasis
Thyroid hormone (TH) has a profound effect on energy metabolism and systemic homeostasis. Adipose tissues are crucial for maintaining whole-body homeostasis, however, whether TH regulates systemic metabolic homeostasis through its action on the adipose tissues is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that systemic administration of triiodothyronine (T3), the active form of TH, affects both inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and whole-body metabolism. Taking advantage of the mouse model lacking adipocyte TH receptor α (TRα) or β (TRβ) we show that TRβ is the major TR isoform that mediates the T3 action on the expression of genes involved in multiple metabolic pathways in iWAT, including glucose uptake and usage, de novo fatty acid synthesis, and both UCP1-dependent and -independent thermogenesis. Moreover, our results indicate that ChREBP in iWAT is regulated by T3, thereby being critically involved in T3-regulated glucose and lipid metabolism and energy dissipation. Meanwhile, mice with adipocyte TRβ deficiency are susceptible to diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysregulation, suggesting that TRβ in adipocytes may sever as a potential target for metabolic diseases.